(The simple guidelines given here may not be adequate for more-complex structures.) Properties of amines Physical properties Distinctive odours that are fishy to putrid characterize the lower-molecular-weight amines.
Reduction occurs when the oxidation number of an atom becomes smaller.One trend is immediately obvious: The main group metals act as reducing agents in all of their chemical reactions.Every strong oxidizing agent (such as O 2 ) has a weak bon de reduction ultima chat conjugate reducing agent (such as the O 2- ion).Molecular shape and configuration An amine molecule has the shape of a somewhat flattened triangular pyramid, with the nitrogen atom at the apex.R2chch2NR2 Hg(OAc)2 R2cchnr2 Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peroxy acids generally add an oxygen atom to the nitrogen of amines.Oxidation states provide a compromise between a powerful model of oxidation-reduction reactions based on the assumption that these compounds contain ions and our knowledge that the true charge on the ions in these compounds is not as large as this model predicts.In quaternary ammonium salts, this area is occupied by a fourth substituent.
In general, the relationship between conjugate oxidizing and reducing agents can be described as follows.
Many important products require amines as part of their syntheses.
The Relative Strength of Metals as Reducing Agents We can determine the relative strengths of a pair of metals as reducing agents by determining whether a reaction occurs when one of these metals is mixed with a salt of the other.
Oxidation and Reduction, oxidation-Reduction Reactions, the term oxidation was originally used to describe reactions in which an element combines with oxygen.
Conjugate comes from the Latin stem meaning "to join together." It is therefore used to describe things that are linked or coupled, such as oxidizing agents and reducing agents.
With aromatic primary amines, nitrogen is not lost if the reaction mixture is kept cool (usually 0 C 32 F and a diazonium salt, ArN2X, where Ar is an aryl group, is formed: ArNH2 HNO2 HX ArN2X These highly reactive compounds are of great importance.Methylamine is utilized in the production of the analgesic meperidine (trade name Demerol) and the photographic developer Metol (trademark and dimethylamine is used in the synthesis of the antihistamine diphenhydramine (trade name Benadryl the solvent dimethylformamide (DMF and the rocket propellant 1,1-dimethylhydrazine.Amides, rconr2, can be reduced to amines by lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4 which replaces the oxygen with two hydrogens.Nitrous acid converts secondary amines (aliphatic or aromatic) to N-nitroso compounds ( nitrosamines R2NH HNO2 R2NNO.Smith Eric Block Learn More in these related Britannica articles: poison: Organic compounds Aromatic amines and nitro compounds, for example, aniline, toluidine, and nitrobenzene, produce depression of the central nervous system and methemoglobinemia (Table 2).Read More on This Topic chemical compound: Amines Amine s are functional group compounds that contain at least one nitrogen atom bonded to hydrogen atoms or to alkyl or aryl groups.Vitamin: Discovery and original designation nitrogen-containing component known as an amine, he called the compounds vital amines, a term that he later shortened to vitamines.Example: The reaction between magnesium metal and oxygen to form magnesium oxide involves the oxidation of magnesium.Note that power is the rate at which energy is generated, transferred or used.With tertiary amines, an alkyl group may be displaced by a halogen.They are gases at room temperature or are easily vaporized liquids.With increasing size, they become less volatile; the odour decreases and eventually becomes unnoticeable, although some diamines have offensive odours.(Is sodium metal strong enough to reduce a salt of aluminum to aluminum metal?) When this reaction is run, we find that sodium metal can, in fact, reduce aluminum chloride to aluminum metal and sodium chloride when the reaction is run at temperatures hot enough.
The chemistry of magnesium oxide, for example, is easy to understand if we assume that MgO contains Mg2 and O2- ions.