"PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade reduces pathology and improves memory in mouse models of panier cadeau corporatif Alzheimer's disease".
Blank C, Mackensen A (May 2007).
"Role of PD-1 co-inhibitory pathway in HIV infection and potential therapeutic options".
12 In the case of Neisseria meningitidis, the lipid A portion of the molecule has a symmetrical structure and the inner core is composed of 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid (KDO) and heptose (Hep) moieties.Lipooligosaccharides play an important role in the pathogenesis of certain bacterial infections because they are capable of acting as immunostimulators and immunomodulators.Lipid A edit Main article: Lipid A Lipid A is, in normal circumstances, a phosphorylated glucosamine disaccharide decorated with multiple fatty acids.11 13 This is consistent with binding of SHP-1 and SHP-2 phosphatases to the cytoplasmic tail of PD-1 upon ligand binding.The effects of the two antibodies do not appear to be redundant.
51 See also edit References edit Parija SC (Jan 1, 2009).
Tzeng YL, Datta A, Kolli VK, Carlson RW, Stephens DS (May 2002).
5 25 Triggering PD-1, expressed on monocytes and up-regulated upon monocytes activation, by its ligand PD-L1 induces IL-10 production which inhibits CD4 T-cell function.
"Differential effects of lipopolysaccharide on mouse sensory TRP channels".The Lipid A moiety is a very conserved component of the LPS.Animal studies edit HIV edit Drugs targeting PD-1 in combination with other negative immune checkpoint receptors, such as ( tigit may augment immune responses and/or facilitate HIV eradication.Journal of Molecular Biology.22 Endotoxins are in large part responsible for the dramatic clinical manifestations of infections with pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, such as Neisseria meningitidis, the pathogens that causes meningococcal disease, including meningococcemia, WaterhouseFriderichsen syndrome, and meningitis.A b Bardhan K, Anagnostou T, Boussiotis VA (2016)."Development of lupus-like autoimmune diseases by disruption of the PD-1 gene encoding an itim motif-carrying immunoreceptor".21 22 In vitro, treatment of anti- CD3 stimulated T cells with PD-L1-Ig results in reduced T cell proliferation and IFN- secretion."Molecular mimicry as an inducing trigger for CNS autoimmune demyelinating disease".First, it promotes apoptosis (programmed cell death) of antigen -specific T-cells in lymph nodes.11 In another example, the terminal trisaccharide portion (lactotriaose) of the oligosaccharide from pathogenic Neisseria spp.38 Moreover, endotoxemia of intestinal origin, especially, at the host-pathogen interface, is considered to be an important factor in the development of alcoholic hepatitis, 39 which is likely to develop on the basis of the small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome and an increased intestinal permeability."Activation-induced expression of human programmed death-1 gene in T-lymphocytes".Nishimura H, Nose M, Hiai H, Minato N, Honjo T (August 1999).

Bruce Beutler was awarded a portion of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work demonstrating that TLR4 is the LPS receptor.
"Genomic organization of LPS-specific loci".
Oryzae, the bacterial leaf blight pathogen of rice".